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28 Interesting Facts About Staphylococcus Aureus Infection

28 Interesting Facts About Staphylococcus Aureus Infection

S. aureus is a human pathogen which causes a variety of clinical infections. About 30% of the human population is colonized with Staphylococcus aureus.

Interesting Facts About Staphylococcus Aureus Infection:

#1 The name Staphylococcus originates from Greek terms (staphyle and kokkos) which literally translate as a bunch of grapes. Over 30 types of Staphylococci bacteria cause infections in humans (typically skin infections which are limited to a small area of an individual’s skin, such as – boils, folliculitis, cellulitis, and impetigo), however, the most common type of Staph infection is caused by S. aureus.

Statistics

#2 S. aureus is the leading cause of soft tissue and skin infections.

#3 Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria are resistant to all beta-lactam antibiotics, like – penicillin, methicillin (a narrow-spectrum β-lactam antibiotic of the penicillin class), amoxicillin, and oxacillin.

#4 If not detected early and treated promptly, a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection is very serious and can lead to a rapid deterioration of a sufferer’s condition. The mortality rate associated with invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections is estimated at around 20 percent, however, the number varies substantially between studies in different settings.

#5 There were an estimated 5 million people in the United States colonized by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains.Staphylococcus aureus

#6 According to a report published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was responsible for over 19,000 deaths and 95,000 life-threatening infections in 2005.

#7 In the U.S. Healthcare Facilities, 46.3 of every 1,000 patients had active MRSA, that is around 10 times higher than previously estimated, according to a 2010 report. However, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention study which was issued in the Journal of the American Medical Association Internal Medicine established that invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in healthcare settings are declining.

#8 New Zealand has a higher incidence of S. aureus disease than other developed countries, with notable sociodemographic variation in incidence rates.

Icd 10

  • A49.02 – it is the code for Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection;
  • A49.01 – it is the code for Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus infection.

Symptoms of Staph Infection

#9 Most infections caused by S. aureus are soft tissue and skin infections like – cellulitis or abscesses.

Abscess

#10 Characteristics:

  • the area surrounding the abscess is typically painful, red, and swollen;
  • commonly filled with pus;
  • a pocket of infection which forms at the site of injury.

Cellulitis

Image credit – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cellulitis

#11 It is a common bacterial skin infection. Cellulitis can occur anywhere in the human body, nevertheless, it most frequently occurs on the arms or legs. Symptoms include – swelling, redness, and pain at the site of infection.

#12 Other types of staph infections include the following:

Endocarditis 

#13 It is an inflammation of the inner layer of the heart, the endocardium. Surgery is occasionally required if the infection damages the heart valves, however, healthcare professionals usually treat endocarditis with antibiotics.

Sepsis

#14 It is a potentially life-threatening complication of the Staph infection. Also, sepsis is more dangerous in older adults. Severe cases of sepsis can lead to septic shock.

Impetigo

#15 It is a bacterial infection that involves the superficial skin. The infection appears around the nose, mouth, or on the skin which isn’t covered by clothes. It is usually not serious and can be treated with antibiotics. With treatment, it generally gets better in up to 10 days.

When to Call the Doctor

#16 Contact your doctor when:

  • you have a weakened immune system – for instance, you are having chemotherapy or you have had an organ transplant;
  • it lasts more than seven days;
  • it is spreading quickly;
  • it is getting worse.

CausesStaphylococcus aureus

#17 Staph infections usually occur when there is a cut or break in the skin.

Risk Factors

#18 Some conditions may put you at higher risk of Staph infections, including:

  • use of intravenous catheters;
  • breastfeeding;
  • surgical incisions;
  • skin injuries or disorders;
  • having type 2 diabetes mellitus;
  • the use of injectable medications or drugs;
  • having a weakened immune system;
  • having cancer;
  • having a lung disease;
  • having a vascular disease.

Complications

#19 Although most staph infections are not serious, Staphylococcus aureus can cause serious infections like:

  • joint infections;
  • bone infections;
  • pneumonia;
  • bloodstream infections.

Diagnosis

#20 The definitive method to diagnose a Staph infection is to perform a bacterial culture on pus from an infected wound.

Treatment

#21 Simple infections can be treated at home. But, serious Staph infections require to be treated in hospital, usually with intravenous antibiotics. Antibiotics which are usually used include:

  • vancomycin (it is a glycopeptide antibiotic);
  • tetracycline;
  • linezolid (comes as an oral suspension or as a tablet);
  • clindamycin;
  • trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.

#22 The success rate of the medical treatment for individuals with invasive staph infections will depend on:

  • whether or not the sufferer has any pre-existing health conditions, like – a weakened immune system, type 2 diabetes mellitus, or heart disease;
  • whether the infection has caused complications;
  • where the bacterial infection has spread;
  • the patient’s age.

#23 Note – Siberian brown bears have a chemical in their saliva which has been found to kill S. aureus, according to a team of scientists affiliated with multiple institutions in the United States and Russia.

Prognosis

#24 The majority of healthy individuals who develop infections caused by S. aureus recover fully within a short time. Unfortunately, some people become seriously ill and need long-term therapy.

Prevention

#25 To prevent the spread of S. aureus:

  • don’t share any personal items, including sports equipment or towels;
  • keep all skin injuries clean;
  • bathe or shower once per day;
  • wash your hands frequently and thoroughly with warm water and soap.

Famous People Who Died of Staph Infections

Roy ScheiderRoy Scheider

#26 He was an exceptionally talented American actor who rose to fame, playing in films such as – Jaws and The French Connection. Roy died from complications of a staph infection in 2008.

CaravaggioRoy Scheider

#27 He was an Italian painter active in Naples, Rome, Sicily, and Malta, from the early 1590s to 1610. Caravaggio became famous for the intense and unsettling realism of his religious works. In addition, he influenced numerous artists during his lifetime. According to recent data, Caravaggio died of Staph infection.

Jack Snow

#28 He was an American football player who played wide receiver at the Los Angeles Rams as well as the University of Notre Dame. In 2005, Jack Snow developed a staph infection and died from complications.

Sourceshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14530781
https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0142130
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877282X15000090
https://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2175369

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