Health Guide Net

30 Interesting Facts About Salmonella Bacteria And Salmonellosis (Salmonella Poisoning)

30 Interesting Facts About Salmonella Bacteria And Salmonellosis (Salmonella Poisoning)

Salmonella bacteria are some of the most usual causes of food-borne illnesses. Symptoms of infection include fever, diarrhea, abdominal pain, vomiting, and nausea.

List Of 30 Interesting Facts About Salmonella Bacteria And Salmonella Poisoning (Salmonellosis):

#1 Salmonella are rod-shaped bacilli which can cause salmonella poisoning, a diarrheal disease. The bacteria are also one of the main causes of gastroenteritis in both third-world and industrialized countries.

#2 The organism is named after Daniel Elmer Salmon, a veterinary surgeon who discovered the bacteria.

#3 There are around 2,000 different types of Salmonella bacteria, however, only a dozen or so make people sick. Most commonly, salmonellosis results in a severe stomach illness.

Types

#4 Salmonella is usually divided into two categories:

  • Typhoidal Salmonella – it is uncommon in the United States, however, it can be seen in developing countries. This type causes typhoid fever;
  • Non-typhoidal Salmonella – it is the most common form. But, in about 5 percent of non-typhoidal infections, affected individuals develop bacteremia.

Statistics

#5 Salmonellosis is responsible for around fifty percent of the bacterial infections in the U.S. and affects over 1.5 million people in the United States every year. Worldwide, it accounts for around 155,000 deaths and 94 million foodborne illnesses a year.

#6 It is most frequent in individuals under 20 years old.

Icd 10

A02.9

Incubation Period

#7 Symptoms generally start within 12 to 96 hours after exposure, however, they can begin up to 14 days after exposure.

Causes

#8 Salmonellosis is caused by eating undercooked or raw poultry, meat, eggs or egg products. Also, goods may become contaminated by the unwashed hands of an infected food handler.

#9 Other causes can include:

  • using uncured pet manure to fertilize flower beds or gardens;
  • allowing animals in areas where drinks and food are eaten, prepared, or stored;
  • allowing individuals who are at increased risk for salmonella to clean a pet’s habitat;
  • discarding cleaning water from the pet’s habitat in a sink which is used for food preparation;
  • failure to wash your hands after touching or handling an animal.

Can Animals Get Salmonella?

#10 Salmonella poisoning can affect numerous animal species including reptiles, birds, cats, and dogs.

Risk Factorssalmonellosis

#11 The elderly, children (especially babies), and people with a weakened immune system are most at risk. Specific conditions and medications which weaken immunity to salmonellosis include:

  • anti-rejection medications;
  • the use of corticosteroids;
  • malaria;
  • sickle cell disease (a serious inherited blood disorder);
  • AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome).

#12 Salmonellosis proliferates during seasons that are characterized by elevated precipitation and temperatures.

Symptoms

#13 Symptoms of salmonella poisoning include:

  • bloody stool;
  • tenderness;
  • low energy;
  • cramping;
  • dry mouth;
  • dark-colored urine;
  • abdominal pain;
  • vomiting;
  • chills;
  • nausea;
  • diarrhea;
  • muscle pain;
  • fever.

#14 Usually, the symptoms last 4 to 7 days and most affected individuals get better without medical treatment.

#15 Individuals with salmonella poisoning can spread the infection from a few days to a few weeks after they have been infected — even if they have been treated with antibiotics or their signs and symptoms have disappeared.

When to Call the Doctor

#16 Seek medical advice if any of the following symptoms occur:

For children:

  • any symptoms in a child less than 12 months of age;
  • bloody diarrhea;
  • abdominal pain;
  • feeling faint on standing;
  • fever;
  • sunken eyes;
  • dry mouth;
  • lethargy;
  • decreased urination.

For adults:

  • bloody diarrhea;
  • feeling faint on standing;
  • severe abdominal pain;
  • dry mouth;
  • fever;
  • lethargy;
  • decreased urination.

#17 Dehydration is more likely to occur in:

  • any child with severe vomiting and diarrhea;
  • any child who does not drink much when they have severe stomach illness (gastroenteritis);
  • a breastfed infant who has stopped breastfeeding during the illness;
  • babies under the age of 1 year.

Complications

#18 A small number of affected individuals with salmonellosis develop pain in their joints. This pain can last for several months and can lead to chronic arthritis.

Diagnosis

#19 To diagnose salmonellosis, healthcare professional use a swab to obtain a sample from the rectum or take a sample of pus, stool, or blood.

#20 Note – treatment with antibiotics before collecting a specimen for testing can lead to a negative test result even when the bacteria cause the infection as antibiotics affect bacterial growth in culture.

Treatment

#21 Most cases of Salmonella poisoning resolve on their own without complications and are not life-threatening.

#22 An estimated 20 percent of cases need hospitalization. Also, about 5 percent of cases have an invasive infection.

#23 Routine antimicrobial therapy is not recommended for mild or moderate cases in healthy people as it may result in bacteria being excreted in the stool longer. Hence, antibiotics are usually not given.

#24 Individuals with implanted devices or materials (like – a blood vessel graft or an artificial heart valve or joint valve) and individuals at risk of bacteremia (like – people with HIV infection and older residents of a nursing home) are given antibiotics.

#25 These people usually receive azithromycin (a semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic of the azalide class) and ciprofloxacin (an antibiotic that belongs to a group of drugs called fluoroquinolones) for a few days.

#26 Treatment in severe cases is electrolyte replacement (to provide electrolytes, like – potassium, sodium, and chloride ions, that are lost through diarrhea and vomiting) and rehydration.

#27 Avoid anti-diarrhoeal and anti-vomiting drugs unless recommended or prescribed by a healthcare professional.

#28 Some people continue to carry the bacteria in the bowel and shed them in the feces for several months after recovering.

Prevention

Image credit – https://www.flickr.com/photos/usdagov/7008312299

#29 Prevention methods include:

  • wash your hand after contact with animals, their treats or food, or their living environment;
  • avoid eating high-risk foods, including undercooked ground beef or poultry, lightly cooked or raw eggs, and unpasteurized milk;
  • chill foods promptly when transporting from one place to another;
  • keep food properly refrigerated before cooking;
  • cook foods to a safe internal temperature;
  • do not place cooked foods on plates where raw foods once were unless it has been cleaned thoroughly;
  • clean surfaces before preparing food on them;
  • do not use utensils on cooked foods which were previously used on raw foods;
  • clean hands with warm water and soap before handling food.

What Temperature Kills Salmonella

#30 To be 100 percent sure, cook everything to at least 160 F. Also, remember the danger zone is between 40 degrees F and 140 degrees F.

Sourceshttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412015001361
https://www.som.uci.edu/news_releases/salmonella-study-02062013.asp
https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/6/2/e010204
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/21553769.2015.1051243

Health Guide's Editorial

Health Guide Net provides qualitative and informative articles on health, diet, and beauty.